【TOMO雙語爆】火星殖民開跑 SpaceX與火星一號相競逐

出版時間:2016/06/08 19:20

SpaceX公司執行長馬斯克(Elon Musk)宣布,該公司將在2024年之前,把人類送上火星,今年9月將揭示火星殖民計劃。

同時,另一個非營利團體也宣稱,要在火星上建立永久殖民地,將在2026年之前,把第一批太空人送上火星。

在太陽系中,火星是除地球之外,最適宜人居的行星。

火星的自然資源與地球類似,氣候溫和,地表重力可讓人適應。

非營利基金會火星一號(Mars One)提出火星殖民計劃。他們已選出六組四人團隊,明年將開始訓練。

火星一號組織將在2020年,發射通訊衛星到火星。

在2022年到2025年間,多艘太空船將登陸火星,組裝居住單位,包括維生和通訊系統。

該居住單位將包含充氣式起居室,太空人離開密閉式住處時,可用氣閘將門關上。

該居住單位將備有建造房間、地板、電源插座用的建築材料。同時設有淋浴間和廚房。

新成員加入殖民時,會送來材料,建造更多單位。

環境控制與維生系統連接在居住單位旁。該系統會從火星大氣中,析取出氮氣和氬氣,灌入居住空間,作為惰性氣體。

該設施將利用薄膜太陽能電池模組來發電。

維生系統含有加熱設備,可以燒水,居民可從火星土壤中的冰,析取水分。

太空人登陸後,維生系統也將負責淨水,並從居住單位的空氣中,去除二氧化碳。

殖民地通訊系統,有兩個繞軌道運行的衛星,一個繞火星、一個繞太陽運行。

當火星位於衛星與地球間時,繞火星運行的衛星,訊號會被阻斷。

為了彌補這點,該系統設置了繞太陽運行的第二顆衛星,它能攔截、接替訊號傳輸,使殖民地幾乎可以24小時,全年無休地與地球通訊。

唯有在太陽位於火星和地球之間,火星又同時位於其衛星與地球之間時,殖民地才會失去訊號傳輸。

火星一號計畫自2026年起,每隔兩年,將一組四人團隊送上火星。

從地球出發,需時一年,該團隊才能登陸火星地表。

該組織希望,在最初六組團隊殖民火星後,還能繼續訓練、送上新的團隊。

英文原文:

SpaceX chief executive Elon Musk says the company will send people to Mars by 2024 and he will reveal plans for colonization in September.

Meanwhile, a nonprofit group also aims to establish permanent Mars colonies, sending the first group of astronauts by 2026.

After Earth, Mars is the most habitable planet in our solar system.

It has similar natural resources, a temperate climate and an adaptable gravitational pull on its surface.

Nonprofit foundation Mars One has developed a plan to colonize Mars. It has already selected six teams of four individuals and the first team will begin training next year.

In 2020, Mars One will launch a communications satellite to the red planet.

Between 2022 and 2025, a series of rovers will land and assemble livable habitats, which include a life support unit and a communications system.

The living unit will house an inflatable living section and an airlock used by astronauts when leaving the sealed, habitable settlement.

The unit will include materials for the construction of rooms, floors and electrical outlets, and comes equipped with showers and kitchen areas.

Additional units will arrive and be constructed as new teams join the colony.

Attached to the living unit is the environmental control and life support system. The system will feed nitrogen and argon gas extracted from Mars’ atmosphere into the habitable space as inert gases.

Thin film solar photovoltaic panels will be included to generate electricity.

The life support system will be equipped with heating units to boil and extract water from ice in the planet’s soil.

Once the astronauts have landed, it will also be in charge of water purification and removal of carbon dioxide from the living unit atmosphere.

The colony’s communication system will include two orbiting satellites: one around Mars and one around the sun.

The satellite orbiting Mars will only be interrupted when Mars is positioned between it and Earth.

To counter the lapse, the second satellite orbiting the sun will intercept and relay the transmission, allowing almost 24/7 communication with Earth.

The colony will lose transmission only when the sun is between Mars and Earth and Mars is between its satellite and Earth simultaneously.

Mars One will launch a team of four members every two years, starting in 2026.

It will take a year after departing Earth for a team to land on the surface of Mars.

The organization hopes to train and send new teams, even after the initial six have colonized the planet.

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